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外國80后和90後學習中國法成潮流?

外國80后和90後學習中國法成潮流?

作為大陸法的鼻祖,德國法在世界法律體系中具有很高的地位。傳統教學理論一直將研習德國法學理論和法律制度作為必要內容之一。但是,經過改革開放后30年的法制建設,的法制體系中是不是或許也有值得德國學習之處?本次對話欄目我們邀請到了德國學者Nina Rotermund來和我們分享她的意見。

學者介紹

Nina Rotermund

Nina Rotermund目前是杜伊斯堡艾森大學的博士生,主修研究(Chinese Studies), 拿到了哥廷根-南京大學的雙學位學歷,主修法以及比較法,曾在北京外國語大學以及台灣國立大學進行過學習與交流。

受訪人Nina Rotermund, 杜伊斯堡艾森大學的博士

採訪人郭文青,復旦大學法學院碩士;FLIA項目實習生

Q

FLIA:您認為什麼是推動外國學生學習法的原因?

的現代化建設以其速度以及成效見長,30年的改革使的GDP翻了翻,而與之相比,一些歐洲國家花了50年才達到這個目標。目前,是國際舞台的主要參與者,吸引了很多國際投資者的興趣。

世界的融合、多樣化以及社會參與者以及需求的增長將不可避免地導致諸多疑難問題的產生並且需要一個更加完善複雜的解釋。而學習法律以及法制史就是解決這些問題的一個重要手段。只有對法律進行深入研究我們才能夠提供多種解決方案。

我認為將會有越來越多的外國學生意識到學習法律能夠帶來的職業發展的機遇。

Q

FLIA:通常來講德國學生對哪個部門法感興趣?為什麼?

商法以及公司法吧,因為商業交往在與德國交往的中是佔主導地位的。一小部分學生也對公法像憲法、行政法甚至刑法感興趣。非常有趣的是,公法領域更加敏感,因為它受制於國家本身,所以對於外國學生來說,得到該領域的信息資源更困難。

Q

FLIA:你認為法律教育將會越來越受外國學生歡迎嗎?為什麼?

NR:我認為的律師培養出於國內外壓力在近年越來越專業化。從國際上來說,要求「加強法治」的呼聲不斷,從國內來說,公民的法制意識越來越強,尤其是涉及到政府以及公民的糾紛。除了這些壓力,進行法制改革也是對於領導層增強合法性以及可信度的重要舉措。這些發展看起來非常可靠,並對外國學生學習法律打開了大門。

Q

FLIA:你認為你在的教育以及工作經驗對你有什麼益處?

我曾花了幾年時間在學習,而這些學習經驗使我更好了解的思考方式,而且至今還對我解決研究難題的方法有影響並且對於我的博士項目大有裨益。目前我正在研究行政訴訟法以及該法在實施中政治產生的直接或者間接影響。我認為在培養的能力會對我的研究以及職業發展有所助推。

Q

FLIA:什麼是你在學習時印象最深的東西?

在我感受了「東方在全盛時期」理論,這大大挑戰了我的感知以及世界觀。通過體驗文化的傳統習俗以及價值觀,我用了以前從來都不會想到的方式來了解我自己以及我的背景。

Q

FLIA:你認為法律教育以及德國法律教育有什麼差別?

司法考試與德國的司法考試內容完全不一樣。在學生需要完成選擇題,而德國國家考試的側重點則是法律觀點以及報告。[1]

當我在南京學習法的時候,我的教授們顯得有些批判,他們多次強調「應該不停地像德國學習」。我個人不同意這種說法,因為法律移植並不是總能成功。每個國家自己的法律文化都應該被重視。一些法律糾紛並不能通過普世的法律工具所解決。還有一個非常重大的不同點在於我的法律老師總是講到政治正確,而德國老師的言談看起來被限制的程度並不大。

[1]譯者註:德國的司法考試被稱為國家考試,內容由各州自行決定。

Q

FLIA:你認為法律制度有什麼可以借鑒的地方嗎?

的整體發展是具有借鑒意義的。最開始發展的速度要求有一個相對靈活的法律、政治制度,但是在當下經濟增速放緩,正在一個瓶頸期,要對法律進行調整。我認為法律系統是一個關於變化中系統的非常好的例子。歐美的法律制度已經形成了很久,有時候會讓人感覺一成不變,這樣的法律制度要求我們「不要改變現行的制度」。曾經正確並且成功的東西隨著外界環境的改變,現在並不一定是正確的。英國脫歐的辯論、國際恐怖主義的威脅以及美國政治形勢的變化、川普的上台都是對舊制度以及思維方式的挑戰。我們現在能從學習的地方就在於如何面對挑戰以及在面對未知的未來時如何保證靈活以及力度。

對Nina的採訪是一個非常愉快的過程。她對法的興趣和信心對我們正在研習法律的學生和學者來說,是欣慰也是鼓勵。我們期待著,法學研究和法治建設,會伴隨著我們本土的研究,以及國際間學者的交流和合作進益到更高的水平。

German Law students:

why should we learn Chinese law?

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that German legal system is the foundation of the Continental Law. Those who want to dig deeper into the huge treasury of civil law principles should always focus on the German legal system. However, after 30 years of reconstructing Chinese legal system, is there anything can be learnt from Chinese law? The Foundation for Law and International Affairs (FLIA) interviewed one German expert, Nina Rotermund, who shared her understanding of Chinese legal system. Ms. Rotermund is currently doing her Ph.D. in Law at Duisburg-Essen University and her research interest is Chinese studies. She got her master』s degree from Nanjing University with a focus on economic law. Additionally, she was once on a brief visit to Beijing Foreign Studies University and National Taiwan University.

Q

FLIA: What do you think are the driving factors that make the foreign students be interested in studying in Chinese law?

NR: The Chinese modernization is unique in its speed and success. Within thirty years of reforms China doubled her GDP compared to some European countries that took about half a century to achieve the same. Nowadays, China is a major global player and attracts international investors who are interested in doing business.

The convergence of the world, the diversification of social actors and the increase of demands inevitably cause problems and disputes which are not easily solved 「on the streets」, but ask for a more complex interpretation. Thus, an understanding of Chinese law and its legal history is important in order to successfully solve such disputes. Only a profound study of Chinese law, and preferably in a comparative perspective, will provide enough insight into the different approaches.

I believe that foreign students soon realize the benefits of studying Chinese law regarding their own career prospects.

Q

FLIA: Generally speaking, what branch of Chinese law is Western students interested in most and why?

NR: I believe that the fields of commercial and company law are of higher interest for the majority of students since commercial interactions between China and the West are predominant. A smaller percentage of students will be interested in public law such as the constitution, administrative laws or even criminal law. Interestingly, the public law sphere is more sensitive because those laws touch upon aspects that are subject to the state. Therefore, it might be a bit more difficult for foreign students to get access to data in those legal fields.

Q

FLIA: Do you think will Chinese legal education become more and more popular among foreign students? Why?

NR: In my view, the education of Chinese lawyers experienced an intense wave of professionalization in recent years, which is related to international and domestic pressures. Internationally, voices that demand a strengthening of 「rule of law」 in China cannot be ignored any more. Domestically, an increasing legal consciousness among the people can also be observed, especially when it comes to disputed where state actors and citizens are involved. Besides these pressures, legal reforms are particularly essential for the leadership to prove its legitimacy and credibility.

This development seems promising and will open legal education for foreign students.

Q

FLIA: How do you think your educational and working experiences in China will benefit you?

NR: During my studies I spent a couple of years in China which were essential for giving me insight in the Chinese way of thinking. This experience still influences the way I approach research puzzles and proved now to be beneficial of the PhD project I am pursuing. I am focusing on the Chinese administrative litigation law and the impact of direct and indirect political influence on the implementation of it. I am positive that the abilities I gained in my time in China will be helpful for my future research and career.

Q

FLIA: What impressed you most in terms of your study in China?

NR: In China, I experienced 「Orientalism at its best」 because my previous perception and worldview were profoundly challenged. I got to know myself and my background in a way I would have never expected by experiencing Chinese culture with its traditions and values.

Q

FLIA: What do you think are the main differences between Chinese legal education and Western legal education?

NR: As far as I can tell, the Chinese bar exam is different from the German state examination in terms of contents. Whereas in China, students answer multiple-choice questions, the German state exam mainly focuses on legal opinions and reports.

When I studied Chinese law in Nanjing, my professors presented themselves as very critical. They emphasized many times that China 「should continue learning from Germany」. I personally disagree with this attitude because legal transplants are not always successful. The respective legal culture has to be kept in mind. Some legal disputes might not be solved by a legal 「one size fits all」 tool. Another striking differences was that my Chinese legal teachers took care of communicating politically correct contents whereas in Germany, the teachers do not seem to be restricted in what they say.

Q

FLIA: Do you think is there anything we can learn from Chinese legal system?

China』s overall development is paradigmatic. At the beginning, this speed demanded flexible laws and politics which favored economic growth. But nowadays the economy is not growing as fast as it used to any more. What we experience now is a phase of saturation in China to which laws have to be adapted. In my view, the Chinese legal system is a very good example for a system in transition. The systems in Europe and the USA look back at an established, century-long history whose numerous legal processes sometimes seem to be encrusted. They follow an idea of 「never change a running system」. What once has proven right and successful, does not necessarily be the right thing to do when the circumstances have changed. The Brexit debate, the threat of international terrorism and also the change in US politics since the inauguration of President Trump all challenge the 「old」 system and its thinking. What we can learn from China now is how to deal with changes and how to preserve flexibility and strength while approaching an unknown future.

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法律與國際事務學會(FLIA)是一家專註於法律與國際事務領域的教育型和諮詢型智庫,以13個國家和地區的智力資源為基礎,致力於促進國際學術交流、教育與合作,並提供法律與政策戰略諮詢。

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