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SAT閱讀《簡愛》片段中的長句分析

SAT閱讀《簡愛》片段中的長句分析

去年10月亞太區的SAT閱讀第一篇選取了簡愛的片段。簡愛的中文版一般是列為普通中學級別的課外讀物,而其英文原版的文字難度卻超過了很多現代小說。由於SAT考生一般都是高中生,要駕馭簡愛級別的英語語言是非常困難的。

下面從去年實考的題目中截取一句長句來進行分析。

原文:

Anybody may blame me who likes, when I add further, that, now and then, when I took a walk by myself in the grounds; when I went down to the gates and looked through them along the road; or when, while Adèle played with her nurse, and Mrs. Fairfax made jellies in the storeroom, I climbed the three staircases, raised the trap-door of the attic, and having reached the leads, looked out afar over sequestered field and hill, and along dim sky-line—that then I longed for a power of vision which might overpass that limit; which might reach the busy world, towns, regions full of life I had heard of but never seen —that then I desired more of practical experience than I possessed; more of intercourse with my kind, of acquaintance with variety of character, than was here within my reach.

分析:

1. 大結構

大框架為When I add further, anybody may blame me that … 其中,When I add further只是結構上的時間狀語從句,含義上只是插入語的作用,即「容我補充一句」的意思。整段話的主體在於anybody may blame me that…,即「人們批評我怎麼怎麼」。而在when I add further之後的那個that(第一處紅色標記的that)之後全部都是批評我的內容。

2. 誰批評我?

在anybody may blame me who likes中,who likes是修飾anybody的定語從句,而不是修飾me的。這是因為如果修飾me那就不能是likes單三形式了。likes在這裡是不及物動詞的用法,有「愛咋樣咋樣」的意思。在現代英語中如Go whenever you like.想啥時走就啥時走,也是這個意思。從這個不及物的like也可推出現在很常見的would like,加了would之後意思比like緩和一點,但基本意思是一樣的。所以簡愛原作的這句話的感覺就是「很多人就是喜歡怪我,他們總是說……」

3. 批評的層次?

從第一處紅色標記的that開始,後面都是批評我的內容。從語法結構上看,that之後的內容套用了多個從句,可見是批評了好多好多地方啊。紅色標出的三個that是在語法上互相呼應的,每個that之後跟的都是批評我的內容,我們就可以把批評我的內容分為三個層次來分析。

4. 批評的第一層次

批評的第一層次是從第一處紅色的that開始一直到第二處標紅的破折號that之前。這個層次中有多個when,while,分號等,其主要的內容是「當什麼什麼時」。一共是3個「當什麼什麼時」。第一個是when I took a walk。第二個是when I went down the gates and looked through them along the road。第三個則是用了複雜句來表示「當什麼什麼時」,在這個複雜句中,主幹部分是「當我爬樓梯、開天窗和遠眺時」,其餘是附屬的狀語。附屬部分放括弧里,就變成這樣:(while Adèle played with her nurse, and Mrs. Fairfax made jellies in the storeroom,) I climbed the three staircases, raised the trap-door of the attic, and (having reached the leads), looked out afar over sequestered field and hill, and along dim sky-line. 而一開頭的now and then是修飾該層次內的所有內容的。總結一下,第一層次的主幹意思就是「當我時不時獨自散步、下樓透過大門往外看、或是爬上樓梯、打開天窗,遠眺山野時」。至此,第一層次只表達了「當什麼什麼時」,到底在那些時候我做了什麼?要看第二和第三層次了。

5. 批評的第二層次

批評的第二層次是從第二處紅色的破折號that起一直到第三處紅色的破折號that之前。從意思上看,第二層次緊接著表示「當」的第二層次,寫的是那時我的行為。當時的行為只有一個,那就是I longed for a power of vision。這個vision又用了兩個並列的用分號隔開的定語從句來修飾(might overpass和might reach)。

6. 批評的第三層次

在第三處紅色的破折號that之後都屬於批評的第三層次。意思上緊接著第二層次,表示我不但longed for a power of vision,而且(then)我還desired more。

7. 破折號that的用法?

破折號that已紅色標記出來。首先,三個紅色標出的that是一模一樣的意思,都是跟著blame me,即批評我什麼什麼事情的意思。純粹從語法結構角度來看,后兩個that是可以省略的。但是,在簡愛這類文學作品中,一個重要的文字特點(style)是節奏感。如果省略了后兩個that,排比(Parallelism)的結構就不那麼清晰,以that then來構造的排比氣勢也會削弱不少。

另外,作者在後兩個that前使用了破折號,並非補充說明的作用。破折號在此處的作用相當於添加了遞進含義的逗號。比如,When the night comes – disaster befalls. 在現代英語中,時間狀語從句與主句之間一般都是用逗號的。但是用了破折號是否感覺意境有點不一樣了?差別在於,破折號讓後面的主句更加突出,就好像是朗讀時故意停頓了一下。回到簡愛的原文,此處要突出排比的節奏感,用破折號比普通的逗號自然是好很多了。更何況,在這個複雜句中,如果用逗號,很難理清這裡的逗號和其他地方的逗號是什麼關係,可能會影響到基本的邏輯層次。(當然,這個程度的破折號用法不在SAT/ACT改錯的考察範圍之內。)

8. 改寫?

這句話如果改寫成這樣,是否邏輯會更加清晰?「不重要」的地方都放括弧里。

When I add further, anybody (wholikes) may blame me that now and then I longed for a power of vision (which might…) and then desired more of practical experience (and more ofintercourse…) when I took a walk alone, went down to the gates (and looked through…) and climbed the three staircases, raised the trap-door of the attic,and (having reached the leads), looked out afar over sequestered field and hill and along dim sky-line (while Adele played…)

這樣的改寫將邏輯都理清了,但是如之前所言,這將失去此類文字特有的節奏感。原作三個層次依次遞進,中間夾著一些小碎句,有大珠小珠落玉盤之感,到最後一個that then達到高潮。這也是閱讀大師文學作品時才能感受到的英語語言的魅力。

整句話在節奏不變的情況下,大致可整理成這樣(綠色字為主句,紅色的三個that緊跟綠色主句且依次遞進,藍色的when是that下引導的時間狀語從句):

Anybody may blame me who likes,

when I add further, that, now and then,

when I took a walk by myself in the grounds;

when I went down to the gates and looked throughthem along the road;

or when, (while Adèle played with her nurse, and Mrs. Fairfax madejellies in the storeroom,) I climbed the three staircases, raised the trap-door of the attic, and (having reached the leads), looked out afar over sequestered field and hill, and along dim sky-line—

that then

I longed for a power of vision which might overpass thatlimit; which might reach the busyworld, towns, regions full of life I had heard of but never seen—

that then I desired more of practical experience than I possessed; more of intercourse with my kind, of acquaintance with variety of character, than was here within my reach.

最後簡單談一下SAT閱讀。

從目前所有官方放出的樣題及實考試捲來看,有一個對於考生而言非常不幸的趨勢,那就是亞太卷的閱讀難度明顯高於北美卷。究竟是偶然還是刻意為之,目前官方沒有給出明確的答覆。那麼對於考生而言該如何應對呢?

最本質的應對方法當然是提升自己的語言功底。當然,這對高中生而言難度是極大的。即便是高中生中的精英,托福雅思閱讀能拿滿分,上述長句能否完全看懂恐怕仍然是一個非常大的問號。

最討巧的辦法應該是在提升功底的同時也能掌握答題技巧。在去年的這次SAT考試中,並沒有任何題目是直接指向這句句子的。換言之,考生要訓練的是,即便遇到了超常難度的句子,也要做到不影響整體閱讀和定位解題。

原文地址:http://www.onebest.cn/show-86-4857-1.html

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