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入伏不用愁:看看古人如何享受清涼一夏(雙語)

入伏不用愁:看看古人如何享受清涼一夏(雙語)

入伏之後,大部分地區都即將迎來一年中最炎熱的時刻,許多人都選擇待在空調房裡享受冷飲,但是在沒有現代科技的古代,古人們是如何熬過炎炎夏日的呢?

According to the Chinese solar terms, it』s Minor Heat now, when most parts of China are going to experience the hottest days of the year. During the scorching summer, we modern people can enjoy cold drinks in an air-conditioned room to escape the heat. But how did ancient people cool down without these modern-day technologies?

按照節氣來算目前已經是小暑時節了,大部分地區都即將迎來一年中最熱的日子。炎炎夏日,我們現代人可以在空調房裡享受冷飲,但古人是如何在沒有現代科技的情況下避暑降溫、享受清涼一夏的呢?

Icehouse and ice ticket

一、冰窖和冰票。

As early as Pre-Qin Dynasty (2100-221 BC), people used natural ice to keep food fresh and make cold drinks. According to the record in the Confucian classic Zhou Rites, the Zhou royal court had a specialized department called the "ice administration" which had 80 employees. The department collected natural ice blocks each December, and then transported them to the ice house for storage.

早在先秦時期(前2100年-前221年),人們就已經會利用天然冰塊來為食物保鮮、製作冷飲了。據儒家經典《周禮》記載,周王室有一個叫「冰政」的專門機構,共有80名「職工」。每年臘月這個機構就會收集天然冰塊,送往冰窖儲存。

Some senior officials were awarded ice cubes by the Zhou royal court, which was a big honor during that time. The system of granting ice lasted until the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. During the Qing Dynasty, "ice tickets" were distributed to officials instead of sending the ice directly to them.

一些高級官員會被周王室獎勵冰塊,這在當時是一項極高的榮譽。將冰塊作為獎勵的制度一直延續到了明清時期。到清代時,朝廷會給官員發放「冰票」,而不是直接將冰塊發給他們。

Ice container

二、冰鑒。

The most commonly used cooling utensil is called "Jian", which is a big container filled with ice. It was made of ceramic in early Chinese history, and was later made of copper. The "Jian" can be seen as an ancient refrigerator, which can be used to make cold drinks. Put the vessel holding food inside the "Jian", close the lid, and the drinks would become cold after a while.

在古代,最常用的冷卻器物被稱之為「鑒」,是一個裝滿冰塊的大容器。早先冰鑒是一種陶器,後來材質改為了青銅。冰鑒可以看做是古人的冰箱,可以用來製作冷飲。將食物放入冰鑒內,蓋上蓋子,過一會兒飲料就會變涼。

Hiding food in the well

三、井中藏食。

During the Qin (221-207 BC) and Han (202 BC-AD 220) dynasties, for common people, the most common way to cool off is by using their wells. Some families put an urn in the well as a cold closet, or put food in a basket and lowered the basket into the well with a rope. Actually, ancient people don』t need cold beverages, as well water was the best drink in summer.

秦漢時期,對普通人來說,降溫的最常用方法是利用他們的水井。一些人家會將大缸放入井中當做冰櫃,或將食物放於籃中,用繩懸挂垂入井內。事實上古人並不需要冷飲,因為井水就是炎炎夏日最好的降溫飲料。

Herbal drinks

四、涼茶。

During the Qing Dynasty, taking Chinese herbal medicine was popular in Beijing. According to historical records, during the scorching summer, some people preferred to drink ice water, some boiled perilla leaves, and liquorice as summer soup to keep off the heat. Ancient people also loved to make lotus seed soup in summer which was said to have the benefit of strengthening the body.

清朝時期,中草藥在北京很受歡迎。據史料記載,當時在炎熱的夏天,一些人喜愛喝冰水,另一些人則喜愛將紫蘇葉和甘草煮水服用,從而避暑降溫。古人還喜愛在夏季煮食蓮子湯,據稱有助於強健身體。

Bed-mat for summer

五、涼席。

Ancient people wove vines, reeds, or bamboo into bed-mats for summer which are cool to sleep on.

古人會把藤蔓、蘆葦、以及竹子編成涼席,睡在上面非常涼爽。

Porcelain pillow

六、瓷枕。

The surface of a porcelain pillow is a layer of glaze, which feels pleasantly cool. It is said that the Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty liked his porcelain pillow a lot.

瓷枕的表面是一層釉面,感覺涼爽宜人。據說清朝乾隆皇帝就非常喜歡他的瓷枕。

Dragon fur curtain

七、龍皮簾。

The dragon fur curtain was used during ancient times to block the hot waves in the summer, and keep interiors pleasantly cool. It was not really made of dragon fur, since there are no such creatures as dragons, so some say it was made of the skin of large boas. Surrounded by large and cold boa skins, the place would feel like an air-conditioned room. However, the skin was precious and difficult to obtain, so only the royal court was able to use it.

古代人們使用龍皮簾來阻擋夏季室外的滾滾熱浪,使室內涼爽宜人。因為根本沒有龍,所以龍皮簾也不是用龍的皮製成,所以有人說龍皮簾可能是由大蟒蛇的皮製成。身處被龍皮簾環繞的房間里就好像是坐在空調房裡一樣。但是龍皮簾非常昂貴且難以獲得,因此只有皇室才能消受得起。

Bamboo lady

八、竹夫人。

Ancient people in the southern parts of China preferred to use a cylinder-shaped bamboo ware, which is hollow in the middle and has grid mesh on the surface. It uses the principle of cross ventilation to cool people down, and can be hugged, or used to hold up your feet.

在古代,南方的人們喜愛抱著「竹夫人」睡覺,這是一種圓筒形、中空的竹編製品,表面呈網格狀。竹夫人採用交叉通風的原理讓人們降溫,既可以抱著睡,也可以用來墊腳。

Fan

9、扇子。

Last but not least, the most commonly used tool to cool down in the summer is the humble fan, and is still used nowadays. Fans were made of different materials, such as bird』s feathers, bamboo, or fur.

最後,古人夏季降溫最常用的器物毫無疑問是扇子,即使今天人們也仍然還在使用。製作扇子的材料多種多樣,羽毛、竹子、皮毛均可。

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