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50個你必須要知道的聲音與音色術語(上篇)

50個你必須要知道的聲音與音色術語(上篇)

前言

用文字去形容聲音是件很抽象的事,比如這音色黏黏的(觸覺);這音色會噴出一道淡棕色的光芒(視覺);有奶油的香味(嗅覺)。 當然不是每個人都能通過文字有同感,但形容音色時人們還是會多用這些非聽覺感官的形容詞做詮釋。 不過希望下面這些術語的專有名詞解釋能為你節省一些收集整理的時間~

01

起音:音調起始的酥脆感。或快或慢,清脆或頓濁。

attack: the initial crispness of the note; it can be fast or slow, crisp or dull.

02

平衡:樂器的特徵,指的是高、中、低頻的音色擁有非常接近的音量大小。

balance: the characteristic of an instrument in which the upper, mid, and lower tones have very similar loudness.

03

低音:低位弦的音調。低頻。

bass: the notes on the lower strings; the lower frequencies.

(註:這裡的低位弦泛指吉他的第四、五、六弦的低音弦,

音高為E2 82Hz, A2 110Hz, G3 195Hz)

04

音繁期(?)開花期(X),繁榮期(X):音調在起音之後變大聲的時期。

bloom: the way a note seems to get louder just after the initial attack.

05

暸亮:強調高音部發音的高次諧波。

bright: a pronounced upper harmonic that accentuates the upper register.

(註:諧音,或指諧波,這個也要另外解釋。高音部泛指高於2000Hz或3000Hz的音高。這邊很難界定,但就吉他而言會是第一、二弦的B3 247Hz, E4 330Hz。

只不過就算第一弦22格的音高D6 1175Hz,以EQ來看都還不到2KHz。另外,我只提到基音,沒把諧波算進去啦)。

06

樂鐘聲(Chime):持續延長且帶著閃閃發亮的高音諧波。

chimey: sustains with shimmery, high harmonics.

07

品等(?)砍、劈、剁(X):泛指音樂上的熟練。

舉例來說,一個演奏者有良好的品等就是個技術純熟的表演者。

chops: refers to musical proficiency; for example, a player with good chops a skilled player.

08

合聲:物理上是指非常短的延遲,大概20 ~ 50ms,與原來的訊號混合產生如夢似幻的效果。

09

副歌:一首歌中反覆重覆或是與主歌不一樣的段落。

chorus: in a song, the part that either repeats or is considerably different from the verse; electronically, a very short delay, 20-50 milliseconds, blended with the original signal for a dreamy effect.

10

清澈:音符與和絃能夠有區別且輪廓分明,但又不會太尖銳刺耳。

clarity: the way notes and chords are distinct and well defined, but not strident.

11

壓縮:一種將聲音調整的方法,以防止過大聲或太小聲,

維持整體音量到一個較狹窄的動態範圍(Dynamic Range);

壓縮也許會增加延音(Sustain),或者它可能會限制音量基淮(Level)而產生破音(Distortion)。

compression: the way a sound is altered to prevent overly loud or overly soft sounds, keeping the overall volume to a narrower dynamic range; compression may enhance sustain, or it may limit the level that might cause distortion.

(註:對初學者來說,一個名詞解釋裡又看到延音、動態範圍跟破音真的太殘忍了。好在延音與動態範圍在這裡有解釋到。)

12

切割力:能從各式各樣的樂器和音色中被聽到或辨識到的能力。

通常跟音量大小、明顯的起音以及高次諧波含量。

cutting power: the ability to be heard through a variety of instruments and tones. Usually associated with loudness, a pronounced attack and upper-harmonic content.

13

衰減:一段在起音之後的聲音部位,在起音與延音之間。

decay: the portion of the note immediately after the attack, just between attack and sustain.

(註:看這邊的圖就知道道了: Roland專門術語詞典:Attack

起音隨時間來到最大音量的頂點,接著就會因為音量減少而往下走。

而往下的這一段就是衰減了。)

14

清晰度:清楚建構的音高與起音。

definition: clearly established pitch and attack.

15

深度:對低音的音調確定屬性;若一把吉他有好的深度,那就有很強的低音音調:

16

不刺耳,不爆音,不糊成一塊。

depth: the positive attribute of low notes; a guitar with good depth haves strong – not strident, boomy or mushy – bass notes.

17

乾燥感:主要定義在基音(原音)以及低序的諧波含量;

常用來描述一把吉他音色沒有過於複雜的諧波含量。

dry or dryness: defined primarily by the fundamental and low-order harmonic content; often used to describe a guitar without complex harmonic content.

18

持續時間:通常跟延音做連結的一段時間測量;

一個彈奏一個和弦或一個單音持續的時間量。

(一般來說,多數的和絃能持續六到十二秒鐘。)

duration: a measure of time usually associated with sustain; the amount of time a chord or note lasts when played (most chords will last six to twelve seconds).

19

動態範圍:一項樂器從最小到最大聲,在能聽見的音樂有用輸出。

dynamic range: The audible and musically usable output of an instrument from its quietest to its loudest.

20

力度變化:一項樂器在彈奏非常輕,輕輕地,中等,大力時產生不同音量的能力。

也可以說是吉他輸出從輕柔到吵嘈的範圍。請見動態範圍。

dynamics: an instrument』s ability to produce different sounds when played very softly, softly, medium, and hard; also, the range of the guitar』s output from soft to loud. See dynamic range.

21

反應平均:一項樂器產生出與振幅與諧波含量十分接近的音調。

evenness of response: when the notes from an instrument are very close in amplitude and harmonic content.

(註:這真的要看振幅的文章才會清楚。裡面會提到even harmonics、odd harmonics。)

22

飽滿:通常是指豐富的基音與諧音。

full: usually refers to abundant fundamental and harmonics.

23

基音:根音,與他的諧波含量分隔。

fundamental: the root note, separate from its harmonic content.

24

諧音:一項樂器自然出現聲音高峰的頻率響應,與根音之上的隔間,

八度音的形式,較高的四五度,和一些單間隔有關。

harmonics: the naturally occurring peaks in the frequency response of an instrument that correspond to intervals above the root note, in the form of octaves, higher fourths and fifths, and some odd intervals.(註:這一定要把振幅講清楚才行了。)

25

聲調:一項樂器,用正確音淮彈奏它的整個範圍,透過補償的技術來達成的能力。

intonation: the ability of an instrument to play in tune through its entire range, which is accomplished via a technique called compensation.(註:這就是所謂的文縐縐的翻譯,企圖讓人看不懂。用語言學來看就是語調的仰揚頓挫)

更多吉他資訊,知識,精彩視頻,關註:吉他范兒

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